Martha Vaughan (1926-2018) was a biochemist working for the National Heart Lung and
Blood Institute. She was an emeritus scientist in the Laboratory of Metabollic
Regulation, and her work focused on cellular regulation and lipid metabolism.
She graduated from the Yale School of
Medicine and went on to become the senior assistant surgeon in the laboratory
of Christian Afinsen, who won the 1972 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. She was a
member of the National Academy of Sciences and of its Committee on Human
Puryear Hearn (b. 1940) is a biophysicist whose
career focuses on health policy. She has worked on various development
programmes to improve the health of at-risk children.
She has a degree in biochemistry and a PhD
in biophysics, the latter from Yale University. She served as the Senior Vice
President of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the largest healthcare
philanthropy in the US, for almost 20 years. She focused on maternal and child
health, as well as AIDS and substance abuse.
Mandl (1917-2016) was an Austrian-American
biochemist. She worked and taught at Columbia University for her entire career,
over almost four decades.
She studied the enzyme collagenase,
respiratory distress in newborns, and pulmonary emphysema. She founded the
academic journal Connective Tissue
Research in 1972, and served as its editor for 14 years. Her research was
recognized with numerous awards, such as the 1983 Garvan-Ollin Medal and the Austrian
Cross of Honour for Science and Art.
Saruhashi (1920-2007) was a Japanese biochemist. Her
research focused on the dangers of radioactive fallout and peaceful uses of
She was the first woman to obtain a PhD in chemistry
from the University of Tokyo, as well as the first elected to the Science
Council of Japan. She was dedicated to improving the status of female scientists
in her country, and created the Saruhashi Prize, awarded to a woman scientist
every year since 1981.
was a British biochemist and a pioneer in the field of breast cancer treatment.
She worked on developing formestane, the first inhibitor of the
estrogen-producing enzyme aromatase, linked to the disease.
addition to being a researcher, she taught at the University of Maryland. She
received the prestigious Kettering Prize in 2005, in recognition of her groundbreaking
Mildred Cohn (1913-2009) was an American
biochemist and professor of Biophysics and Physical
Biochemistry at the University of Pennsylvania. She received her master’s degree
at 19 years old. Her research topic was the use of nuclear magnetic resonance
(NMR) to study the biochemistry of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). By doing this
she discovered both the structure and various enzymatic conversions of ATP.
she received the highest American science award, the National Medal of Science,
by President Ronald Reagan for her pioneering work on using NMR in enzyme