Alice Munro (b.
1931) is a Canadian writer. She is best known for winning the Nobel Prize for
Literature in 2013.
She is a short story writer, and has
published numerous collections over a career spanning more than four decades. Her
works have won the Governor General’s Award for Fiction, Canada’s most
important literary prize, three times, as well as the Man Booker International
Prize in 2009.
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (1921-2011) was an American medical physicist, and a co-winner of the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Yalow was a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and she received the National Medal of Science in 1988.
Yalow is most known for the development of the radioimmunoassay (RIA). RIA is a radioisotope tracing technique that uses antibodies to measure small amounts of biological substances in fluids. She first developed it to study blood insulin levels in diabetes patients, and the method is still used widely today.
Pearl S. Buck (1892-1973) was an
American author, the first American woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.
She achieved this in 1938, for her novels depicting peasant life in China.
She spent a
considerable amount of time in China, as her parents were missionaries there,
and her knowledge of the country informed books such as East Wind: West Wind and The
Good Earth. She was also an activist encouraging the adoption of mixed-race
children, at a time when the issue was a controversial one in the United
Svetlana Alexievich (b. 1948) is an
investigative journalist and writer from Belarus. She is the recipient of the
2015 Nobel Prize in Literature.
As a journalist, she
was particularly interested in narratives based on witness testimonies, and
documented events such as World War II, the fall of the Soviet Union or the
Chernobyl disaster based on oral accounts. She has published numerous
non-fiction works dealing with themes of war and persecution, and has received
multiple literary awards in recognition of her skill.
Gabriela Mistral (1889-1957) was a
Chilean poet, and the first Latin American author to receive the Nobel Prize in
Literature. She achieved this in 1945, for her poems which deal with themes of
nature, love, and Latin American identity, among others.
She was first
recognized as a great poet when she won the national contest Juegos Florales in 1914. She soon became
a widely acclaimed figure internationally, and worked for the League for
Intellectual Cooperation within the League of Nations. In 1951 she was awarded the
Chilean National Prize for Literature.