Virginia Held (b. 1929) is a feminist philosopher whose work focuses on the ethics
of care. Her research has sparked discussions regarding traditional roles of
women in society and the ethics of caring for others.
She obtained her PhD from Columbia University
in 1968 and went on to teach at Hunter College in New York. She also served as
the President of the Eastern Division of the American Philosophical
Marilena de Souza Chaui (b. 1941) is a philosopher
and a founding member of the Workers’ Party in Brazil. She is also a Professor
of Modern Philosophy at the University of Sao Paulo.
She has served as the Municipal Secretary of Culture of Sao
Paulo, and is known for her severe criticism of capitalist models. Her book, What
is Ideology?, is today a mandatory textbook in Brazilian public schools.
Else Barth (1928-2015)
was a Norwegian philosopher. She taught analytic philosophy at the University
She was an important contributor to
feminist philosophy, empirical logic and the study of argumentation. Her publications
include Logic and Political Culture, Women Philosophers: A
Bibliography of Books, and her most famous work, A Nazi Interior:
Quisling’s Hidden Philosophy.
Langer (1895-1985) was one of the first women in
American history to be professionally recognised as a philosopher. She is best
known for her 1942 book Philosophy in a
New Key, a thorough study of human thought.
She studied at Radcliffe College and
Harvard, obtaining her doctorate from the latter. Her academic career spanned
decades at numerous institutions across the United States. Although not
particularly well known, she is recognised as a trailblazer for female philosophers
and an important contributor to the discipline.
Card (1940-2015) was a Professor of Philosophy at the University of
Wisconsin-Madison. She taught Environmental, Jewish, LGBT and Women’s Studies.
She obtained her MA and PhD from Harvard University, after which she
taught at several prestigious institutions around the US and Europe. In 1996
she was elected Distinguished Professor of the Year by the Society for Women in
(b. 1919) is a moral philosopher from the United Kingdom. Her work concerns
mostly ethics, science and animal rights.
She graduated from Oxford in 1942, and went on to teach at Reading and
Newcastle University. She has published over 15 books on various philosophical
topics, such as Beast and Man: The Roots
of Human Nature and The Ethical Primate:
Humans, Freedom and Morality.
Luce Irigaray (b. 1930) is a Belgian-born French philosopher, known for her many feminist works such as Speculum of the Other Woman and This Sex Which is Not One.
She has two PhDs, one in Linguistics and the second in Philosophy. Her first research looked at the differences in language between male and female dementia patients. Her work studies gender from psychological, philosophical and economic perspectives.
Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) was the first woman president of both the American Psychological Association and the American Philosophical Association.
She graduated with a degree in Classics and Philosophy from Smith College in 1884, and then became a tutor of Greek at Wellesley College. Even though she sat through all the exams required and submitted a dissertation, she was not conferred a degree in philosophy from Harvard due to her gender.