Virginia Held (b. 1929) is a feminist philosopher whose work focuses on the ethics
of care. Her research has sparked discussions regarding traditional roles of
women in society and the ethics of caring for others.
She obtained her PhD from Columbia University
in 1968 and went on to teach at Hunter College in New York. She also served as
the President of the Eastern Division of the American Philosophical
Marilena de Souza Chaui (b. 1941) is a philosopher
and a founding member of the Workers’ Party in Brazil. She is also a Professor
of Modern Philosophy at the University of Sao Paulo.
She has served as the Municipal Secretary of Culture of Sao
Paulo, and is known for her severe criticism of capitalist models. Her book, What
is Ideology?, is today a mandatory textbook in Brazilian public schools.
Else Barth (1928-2015)
was a Norwegian philosopher. She taught analytic philosophy at the University
She was an important contributor to
feminist philosophy, empirical logic and the study of argumentation. Her publications
include Logic and Political Culture, Women Philosophers: A
Bibliography of Books, and her most famous work, A Nazi Interior:
Quisling’s Hidden Philosophy.