Mary Styles Harris (b. 1949) is a biologist and geneticist. She has dedicated her career
to researching the health needs of minority communities and providing them with
information and care.
She was one of the first female students at
Lincoln University, where she studied advanced algebra and chemistry, before
moving on to Cornell to study molecular genetics. She has worked as a professor
at several institutions and was the Executive Director of the Sickle Cell
Foundation of Georgia, as well as the President of BioTechnical Communications.
Carolyn Shoemaker (b. 1929) is a teacher and astronomer. Even though her career in
astronomy began at the age of 51, she discovered over 800 asteroids and 32
comets, once holding the record for most comets discovered by an individual.
She first started working in astronomy at
the California Institute of Technology in 1980, where she made her important
discoveries, including 377 minor planets. She received the Exceptional
Scientific Achievement Medal from the US National Aeronautics and Space
Administration in 1996.
Patricia Lindop (1930-2018) was a professor of radiation biology at the University
of London. She was the organiser of at least 100 meetings where scientist
discussed their nuclear disarmament campaign.
She studied medicine at St Bartholomew’s
Hospital Medical College as one of the first ever female students allowed. For
a period, she worked as a general practitioner, before starting to conduct
research on the effects of radiation on the body and publishing more than 40
papers on the subject. She was an important member and organiser of the Pugwash
movement, which brought together scientists who opposed nuclear weapons.
Erna Hoover (b.
1926) is considered a pioneer of computer technology and telecommunication. Her
most notable achievement is inventing a computerized telephone switching method
which prevented system overload during peak calling times in telephone exchanges.
She studied at Wellesley College, and in 1951 she
obtained a PhD in philosophy and foundations of mathematics from Yale. She
later worked as a professor at Swarthmore College and a senior technical
associate at Bell Labs. Her invention revolutionised modern communication by
facilitating a more robust service for call centers, and she was awarded one of
the earliest software patents for it.
P. Rice (1922-2017) was a health statistician whose
work was instrumental for developing Medicare in the United States. She
performed numerous studies related to the cost of illness, one of the first
scientists to do so.
She studied labor economics at the University
of Wisconsin-Madison, and later went on to work for the Social Security
Administration. In 1976 she became the director of the National Center for
Health Statistics and helped create the National Death Index. Her most
important works focused on the lack of health insurance among senior citizens
and the economic impact of smoking.
Albers (b. 1965) is a German professor and computer
scientist. She is known for her research in the design and analysis of algorithms.
She studied at several universities in
Germany and the United States, and has been a chair for efficient algorithms at
the Technical University of Munich since 2013. She has received the prestigious
Otto Hahn Medal and the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize for her work.
So-yeon (b. 1978) is a Korean astronaut and
biotechnologist. She is the first person from her country to fly in space.
She obtained her doctorate in biotech
systems in 2008, and went on to become an Engineering Physics Professor at
Everett Community College. Her pioneering space mission took place in the same
year; she conducted eighteen different science experiments on her flight. She
also worked for the Korean Aerospace Research Institute.
(b. 1975) is a Turkish-American astrophysicist. She is known for her
important contributions in the research of black holes, neutron stars and
She obtained her PhD from Harvard University and is a member of the
Institute of Advanced Study in Princeton, a Fellow of the Harvard-Radcliffe
Institute and a professor at UC Berkeley. In 2013, she received the Maria
Goeppert Mayer Award from the American Physical Society for her contributions
to the field of astrophysics.
Fleming (1857-1911) was a Scottish astronomer. She
catalogued thousand of stars and other phenomena throughout her career, and
discovered the Horsehead Nebula in 1888.
She started out as the maid of Edward Charles
Pickering, the director of the Harvard College Observatory; soon, he recognised
her talent and intelligence, and hired her to do administrative work. She
eventually founded and coordinated the Harvard Computers, an all-female group
of human computers working for the observatory. She discovered the first white
dwarf star, over 300 variable stars and 10 novae, among others.
Ferrín Moreiras (1914-2009) was a Spanish mathematician and astronomer. She was the first female
astronomer from her native region of Galicia.
She studied Physics and Chemistry in Santiago de
Compostela, and later started working in the Astronomical Observatory in the
city. She obtained her doctorate in Madrid in 1963, when she became the first
woman in Spain to defend a thesis in the field of astronomy.