Constance Adams (1964-2018) was an architect who worked extensively in space programmes.
She contributed to the design of the cabin for the International Space Station,
and was considered a foremost expert in spaceport planning.
She studied sociology at Harvard, followed
by architecture at Yale. Since the late 1990s, she worked for Lockheed Martin
Space Operations at NASA. In 2005, she was named an Emerging Explorer by National
Maria Dalle Donne (1778-1842) was the first woman to ever obtain a doctorate in
medicine. She achieved this in 1799 at the University of Bologna.
Her research focused on female reproduction and
fertility, as well as neonatal medical issues. She was the second woman to ever
become a member of the prestigious Ordine
dei Benedettini Accademici Pensionati, and in 1832 she became the Director of the Department of Midwifery at
the University of Bologna.
Carol Chomsky (1930-2008) was a language educator and linguist. Her specialism was
language acquisition in children.
She studied at the University of Pennsylvania
and then at Harvard, where she obtained her doctorate in linguistics. Her 1969
book The Acquisition of Syntax in Children from 5 to 10 was crucial in
demonstrating that the language-learning process was an ongoing one through a
child’s life. She also developed a reading technique which greatly improved
fluency and speed.
Mary Styles Harris (b. 1949) is a biologist and geneticist. She has dedicated her career
to researching the health needs of minority communities and providing them with
information and care.
She was one of the first female students at
Lincoln University, where she studied advanced algebra and chemistry, before
moving on to Cornell to study molecular genetics. She has worked as a professor
at several institutions and was the Executive Director of the Sickle Cell
Foundation of Georgia, as well as the President of BioTechnical Communications.
Bayer-Fluckiger (b. 1951)
is a Hungarian-born Swiss mathematician. Her research focuses on algebra and
She obtained her
PhD from the University of Geneva in 1978, after which she was a scholar at the
Institute for Advanced Study in New Jersey. She is an executive committee
member of the European Mathematical Society and a recipient of the Maria
Sybilla Merian Award, which she won in 2001.
Carolyn Shoemaker (b. 1929) is a teacher and astronomer. Even though her career in
astronomy began at the age of 51, she discovered over 800 asteroids and 32
comets, once holding the record for most comets discovered by an individual.
She first started working in astronomy at
the California Institute of Technology in 1980, where she made her important
discoveries, including 377 minor planets. She received the Exceptional
Scientific Achievement Medal from the US National Aeronautics and Space
Administration in 1996.
Patricia Lindop (1930-2018) was a professor of radiation biology at the University
of London. She was the organiser of at least 100 meetings where scientist
discussed their nuclear disarmament campaign.
She studied medicine at St Bartholomew’s
Hospital Medical College as one of the first ever female students allowed. For
a period, she worked as a general practitioner, before starting to conduct
research on the effects of radiation on the body and publishing more than 40
papers on the subject. She was an important member and organiser of the Pugwash
movement, which brought together scientists who opposed nuclear weapons.
Erna Hoover (b.
1926) is considered a pioneer of computer technology and telecommunication. Her
most notable achievement is inventing a computerized telephone switching method
which prevented system overload during peak calling times in telephone exchanges.
She studied at Wellesley College, and in 1951 she
obtained a PhD in philosophy and foundations of mathematics from Yale. She
later worked as a professor at Swarthmore College and a senior technical
associate at Bell Labs. Her invention revolutionised modern communication by
facilitating a more robust service for call centers, and she was awarded one of
the earliest software patents for it.
P. Rice (1922-2017) was a health statistician whose
work was instrumental for developing Medicare in the United States. She
performed numerous studies related to the cost of illness, one of the first
scientists to do so.
She studied labor economics at the University
of Wisconsin-Madison, and later went on to work for the Social Security
Administration. In 1976 she became the director of the National Center for
Health Statistics and helped create the National Death Index. Her most
important works focused on the lack of health insurance among senior citizens
and the economic impact of smoking.
Albers (b. 1965) is a German professor and computer
scientist. She is known for her research in the design and analysis of algorithms.
She studied at several universities in
Germany and the United States, and has been a chair for efficient algorithms at
the Technical University of Munich since 2013. She has received the prestigious
Otto Hahn Medal and the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize for her work.