Fleming (1857-1911) was a Scottish astronomer. She
catalogued thousand of stars and other phenomena throughout her career, and
discovered the Horsehead Nebula in 1888.
She started out as the maid of Edward Charles
Pickering, the director of the Harvard College Observatory; soon, he recognised
her talent and intelligence, and hired her to do administrative work. She
eventually founded and coordinated the Harvard Computers, an all-female group
of human computers working for the observatory. She discovered the first white
dwarf star, over 300 variable stars and 10 novae, among others.
Ferrín Moreiras (1914-2009) was a Spanish mathematician and astronomer. She was the first female
astronomer from her native region of Galicia.
She studied Physics and Chemistry in Santiago de
Compostela, and later started working in the Astronomical Observatory in the
city. She obtained her doctorate in Madrid in 1963, when she became the first
woman in Spain to defend a thesis in the field of astronomy.
Mammadbeyova (1922-2006) was a notable Azerbaijani scientist. She
was the first female forensic medical expert and the first female chief
pathologist in her country.
She was the director of the
pathological laboratory at the Research Institute for Clinical and Experimental
Medicine in Baku, a position she held for four decades. She was also the first
female professor of pathology in Azerbaijan.
Anne Ormerod (1828-1901) was an English entomologist, considered a pioneer in the
field of studying insects. She was the first to define the field of
She had an avid interest in insects from childhood, and contributed a
great number of insect specimens to the Royal Horicultural Society collections.
She was later appointed consulting entomologist for the Royal Agricultural
Society and lecturer at the Royal Agricultural College. In 1878 she became the
first female fellow of the Meteorological Society.
Mirzakhani (1977-2017) was a mathematician and professor of mathematics at Stanford
University. She was the first woman and the first Iranian to receive the
prestigious Fields Medal for her work.
Her research focused on topics such as hyperbolic geometry and ergodic
theory. Following her premature death from breast cancer, the International
Council for Science decided to make her birthday the Day of International Women
Galeano Garcés (1958-2016) was a Colombian
agronomist and botanist, specialising in palm trees. She served as the
President of the Institute of Natural Sciences for three years.
She published more than 17 books and 68
scientific papers on the ecology of Colombian plants, and won the Fundación Alejandro Angel Escobar science
prize for her Field Guide to American Palms.
She discovered numerous new plants and wrote the taxonomic description of
58 species – a species of palm, Geonoma
galeanoae, bears her name.
Weaver (b. 1964) is an astrophysics professor and astronomer.
She is an expert in x-ray astronomy and has worked for NASA’s Goddard Space
She obtained her PhD in astronomy in 1993
from the University of Maryland. After that, she was a research scientist at
Penn State and John Hopkins University. Her honours include the Presidential
Early Career Award and the NASA Peer Award.
Ramon (1964-2018) was an Israeli educator and STEM
influencer. She has established the Ramon Foundation to promote education and
leadership amongst Israeli youth.
Before moving to the US, she was a volunteer
in the Scouts movement and served as a paramedic for her military service. The
foundation she created is responsible for organizing numerous events that
promote STEM education, including Israel’s Space Week.
Puryear Hearn (b. 1940) is a biophysicist whose
career focuses on health policy. She has worked on various development
programmes to improve the health of at-risk children.
She has a degree in biochemistry and a PhD
in biophysics, the latter from Yale University. She served as the Senior Vice
President of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the largest healthcare
philanthropy in the US, for almost 20 years. She focused on maternal and child
health, as well as AIDS and substance abuse.
Maddison (1869-1950) was an English mathematician.
Her work focused on differential equations.
She studied at Cambridge and obtained a first-class
degree result in her Mathematical Tripos Exam, but was not awarded a degree on
account of her gender. She later got a resident mathematics fellowship at Bryn
Mawr College, where she received her PhD in 1896. A few years later, she became
associate professor and assistant to the president of the College. She put
together a thorough list of university courses open to women in Canada and the